CO2 / CCUS Capability Statement

Flow Assurance Modeling


Pace are recognised experts in delivering CO2 modelling for CCUS networks.

  • We wrote the procedure for delivering multiphase, multicomponent flow assurance modelling for CO2 pipelines with impurities.
  • We work with the major flow assurance software providers (Schlumberger/Olga and Kongsberg/Ledaflow) to help them improve their product for CO2/CCUS modelling.
  • We have several published papers on the topic ([1], [2], [3], [4], [6], [8], [9] below).
  • We have a wealth of experience delivering flow assurance modelling projects (see experience list) for our clients.

CO2 Thermodynamics


Pace are recognised experts in CO2 thermodynamics and have developed our own, statistically optimised equation of state for CCUS modelling.

  • We have performed a comprehensive analysis of all equations of state and laboratory data related to CCUS fluids.
  • We understand thermodynamic uncertainty margins that must be applied for CCUS modelling.
  • We are working with industry bodies and government to lead new research in CCUS fluid thermodynamics.
  • We have several published papers on the topic ([2], [4], [5], [7], [8] below).

CCUS Conceptual Design


Pace have successfully delivered several conceptual studies for small and large CO2 and CCUS projects.

  • We are the largest specialist flow assurance consultancy in the UK.
  • We are happy to provide client references

Engagement with national regulators


Pace are directly involved with review, revision, and development of ISO and other international standards.

  • Review of and input to ISO 27913 revision via multiple industry groups in UK and Japan.
  • Development of ISO/TC 265. Membership of the ISO Working Group (Matt Healey) is pending.

Development of international CCUS standards


Pace are directly engaged with government authorities responsible for the regulation of CCUS systems worldwide.

  • Engagement as an element of project execution to meet national regulations.
  • Industry advice to regulators to assist with the development of national regulationsand standards.
  • Includes the UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) andthe Government of South Australia Department for Energy and Mining.



Pace have delivered several FEED multi-disciplinary and flow assurance projects, and have a wealth of experience with CCUS pre-FEED and FEED projects.

  • Flow assurance manager for National Grid’s White Rose CCS FEED.
  • Scoping and delivery (Q3 2020) of the 24-month multidisciplinary HyNet CCUSFEED (flow assurance, process, controls, safety case, etc).
  • Delivery of six FEED or pre-FEED projects, flow assurance and multidisciplinary, all6+ months, in the past three years.

Flow assurance management systems (FAMS) for CCUS


Pace understand that transition from design to operation is a key challenge for successful delivery of a CCUS project and are developing strategies for an online system to enable this.

  • Partnership with Turbulent Flux, a Norwegian software developer that specialises in “physical analytics” flow engines that offer a more robust solution than a typical FAMS.
  • Partnership with Schlumberger to improve Olga Online stability for CO2/CCUS applications.
  • Internal data analytics, machine learning, and development of live visualisations to demonstrate CCUS network operability.

CO2 Compression


Pace are thermodynamics specialists, and have a process engineering team with a full understanding of all aspects of CO2/CCUS compression operation and design.

  • We have developed pre-FEED-level design for CCUS compression systems, onshore and offshore.
  • We have full multi-disciplinary capability to deliver all aspects of design (i.e. instrumentation & control, mechanical, safety, etc.) from concept through to EPC and start-up.

CO2 Metering


Pace has access to cutting-edge technology in the developing field of fiscal (or quasi- fiscal) metering for CCUS systems.

  • Development of inlet specifications that take advantage of blending to manage impurities from CO2 capture, including H2.
  • Partnership with the UK National Physical Laboratory in London to the latest research in CO2 metering.
  • Excellent vendor relationships worldwide for costing and procurement.

Data analysis and AI for CCUS


Pace’s flow assurance team includes software and programming specialists that allow us to deliver better results to complex problems, robustly and efficiently.

  • Development of AI to optimise designs and process results using standards computer science methodologies.
  • Management of numerical discontinuities and large datasets that cause significant modelling issues, particularly in multiphase CO2 streams.
  • We have “programmers who do engineering”, not “engineers who do programming”, which means we deliver with the user experience in mind.



Pace have a wealth of experience delivering flow assurance projects with CO2, water injection, and SWAG for EOR and/or disposal.

  • Experience includes removal of CO2 from high CO2 gas-condensate reservoirs, and high-pressure injection for EOR, for example Gorgon LNG in northwest Australia.
  • We work with specialist partners to deliver subsurface modelling if CO2 migration in a reservoir is to be considered.

CCUS safety case development


Pace’s safety case deliver always include engagement with government regulators, as well as industry-standard safety case delivery.

  • We have worked with safety regulators all over the world, including UK, Australia, EU, and west Africa.
  • We have a safety consultancy partner, Engineering Safety Consultants in London, who work with Pace in a seamless team.

Material selection for CO2/CCUS


Pace have delivered world-first research and modelling that has identified new design cases for material selection, as well as delivering material selection as a normal element of a project.

  • Published research on potential for concentration of impurities in CO2 that impact material selection ([2] & [4] below).
  • We work with a partner, Oil and Gas Corrosion in UK, to deliver corrosion/material selection scopes.


[1]  Healey, M. (2020) Operation of a Carbon Capture and Storage Network – a primer, IChemE Clean Energy Special Interest Group 31 March 2020 (Webinar)

[2]  Luna-Ortiz, E., Healey, M., Mistry, K., & Jones, T. (2019) Understanding H2 gas breakout in CCS pipeline gathering networks, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

[3]  Healey, M. (2019) Quality assurance on large flow assurance projects, SIS Global Forum, Monte Carlo

[4]  Healey, M., Mistry, K., & Jones, T. (2019) New safety critical research transporting CO2 containing some H2, UKCCSRC Network Conference, Cambridge,

[5]  Luna-Ortiz, E., Szklarczyk-Marshall, K., Winter, M., & McAllister-Fognini, E. (2020) Evaluating the performance of equations of state for the use of CCS with hydrogen impurities, publication pending

[6]  Luna-Ortiz, E., Szklarczyk-Marshall, K., Tandoh, H. & Healey, M. (2020) Flow assurance challenges in using repurposed facilities for transportation of CO2: The HyNet CCUS Project, publication pending

[7]  Luna-Ortiz, E., Szklarczyk-Marshall, K., Winter, M., & McAllister-Fognini,E. (2020), On the impact of hydrogen as impurity in the physical and transport CO2 streams in CCS/CCSU transport systems: A technical discussion, publication pending

[8]  Healey, M., Yang, S., Akhiyarov, D., & Winning, G. (2012) Challenges associated with flow assurance modelling of CO2-rich pipelines, Corrosion 2012, Salt Lake City, USA

[9]  Healey, M. (2011) Challenges associated with flow assurance modelling of CO2-rich pipelines, All Energy Conference & Exhibition, Aberdeen, UK

[10]  Freeman, D.J., Findlay, D.A., Bamboat, M., Davison, J., Forbes, I. (2002) Cost and performance of CO2 and energy transmission, Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies - 6th International Conference, Kyoto, Japan